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Consultants in Converting & Coating Technology

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Watson Consulting & Associates
In House Conferences
Laboratory Coater
Silicone Cure Test
Coating & Laminating Skills
Coatings and Adhessives Skills
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In House Conference

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for more information go to our In-House Conference page.

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Click on a topic in this list of Technical Expertise to take you to that section

Adhesive Application and Adhesive Selection

Coated Webs

Coating Facility

Coating Material

Coating Process

Coating Property

Coating Weight

Drying and Curing of Functional Coatings

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Hot Melt Adhesives

Film Laminating Process

Flexible Coating Materials

Gravure Coating Process

Hot Melt Adhesives

Label Stock


Medical Coatings

Medical Coating Materials

Medical Products

Paper Finishing

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive

PSA Coating and Laminating

Roll Product Incoming Inspection

Roll Product Industry Marketing

Roll Coating Process

Silicone Coating Material

Silicone Contamination

Slot Coating Process

Solvent Adhesive

Transdermal Adhesives

Web Coating Process

Web Handling

Web Handling System

Web Tracking

Web-fed Machine


Adhesive Application and Adhesive Selection: Chris has used his experience in adhesive formulating, material selection, market studies, and environmental testing to help clients determine appropriate adhesives for various end use applications. This has included establishing adhesive design criteria and formula selection for applications requiring oxygen and water vapor barrier properties, specialty pressure sensitive adhesive applications that had to adhere to difficult surfaces, and medical device adhesives that had to meet specific light transmission requirements. He brings to this area more than 30 years of experience and more than 10 years of consulting.

Coated Webs: Many companies are purchasing coated webs, manufacturing coated webs, or are considering backward integrating their operation to produce their own coated webs. Chris has served as a consultant to companies purchasing coated webs, helping them set up purchasing specification and in-house quality control procedures. For companies in the business of coating webs, Chris' service has been in the form of helping them develop new products, provide an objective outside opinion on new ventures or capitol improvements. Some companies, having determined that it may be to their advantage to manufacture their own coated webs (backward integration) have used Chris to specify equipment, participate in vendor negotiations, train the operators, and provide startup assistance. Chris has more than 30 years of experience in coating and laminating working for companies such as Fasson and Zimmer Paper Products. In addition he has more than 10 years of consulting into this industry.

Coating Facility: In some cases companies adding new equipment or product lines require new manufacturing facilities (i.e. building, coating equipment, QC labs, etc.), Chris has helped a few companies with overseeing the complete project under budget and on time. He has worked with general contractors and subcontractors.

Coating Machinery: Chris has designed coating machinery for various coating applications and those designs are still being used today. As National Sales Director of one of the major machine builders and as President of another, Chris has considerable experience in coating machinery design. In addition, as a long time consultant to the coating, converting, and laminating industries he has a deep understanding of the processes involved which has allowed him to apply that knowledge to coating machinery.

Coating Material: Chris has formulated barrier coatings, pressure sensitive adhesives, release coatings (both silicone and non-silicone), and hot melt coatings. For further information see:
Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Hot Melt Adhesive

Hot Melt Adhesives
Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

Silicone Coating Material
Solvent Adhesive

Coating Process: The application of the coating to the web is the heart of any coating operation. Chris has had extensive experience in a number of coating methods: roll coating, reverse roll, direct roll, 5-roll multi-roll, three roll offset, offset gravure, slot, die, pressure, saturators, rod, and Meyer rod coating. He has been used extensively to help advise companies on determining the best coating method for a given application and in laying out the best coating line configuration consistent with the customers needs. In addition, Chris' knowledge of coatings, coating rheology, materials, and his application experience has enabled him help a number of companies with the processes of coating.

Coating Property: This is the functionality required of the coating. Chris has developed several test methods for the release and pressure sensitive markets to determine if the products meet the end use requirements.

Coating Weight: This is the amount of coating applied to the substrate and is normally expressed as weight per unit area (i.e. grams per sq. meter). The ideal coat weight varies by application and at times it is the lowest possible weight and in other conditions there is a very narrow window for good performance. Chris has had considerable experience in determining the ideal coating weights and in explaining the conditions affecting the target range.

Drying and Curing of Functional Coatings: Using heat and various alternate energy forms (including UV and Electron Beam) a functional coating is either dried, cured or a combination of both.

Half of all coatings applied to webs require either a drying process or a curing process. Chris, through his experience in a wide range of coating operations has worked extensively with the drying and curing processes and has used a number of key experts in this area.

Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Hot Melt Adhesives: EVA hot melt is the most common packaging and laminating hot melt. The EVA provides excellent flexibility and is soluble in paraffin wax. EVA hot melts not only can bond to a wide variety of surfaces (with the addition of suitable resins) but also can provide both water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Chris has been involved in the formulating and application of EVA and EEA hot melts since 1969.

Film Laminating Process: This is the lamination of two or more films and at times with the inclusion of a metal foil. Some of the processes are called Triplexing, Solventless Laminating, Solvent Laminating

Chris has been involved in the adhesive lamination of films and foils since 1969. With the advent of solventless adhesives using a four roll coater for the adhesives application and lamination, Chris has had increasing involvement with the coating application and equipment design.

Flexible Coating Materials: This covers a wide range of materials including various papers to a number of new films. The design of a good product requires the best choice in both functionality and cost. Doing this well requires knowledge of available materials and a strong network of resources who can help narrow down these choices. Chris has both the experience as well as the network to help clients determine the material that will best fit their needs.

Gravure Coating Process: The application of coatings using a gravure coating cylinder. The gravure cylinder is etched with cells that contain a precise volume of fluid.

The variations in gravure coating are: Direct Gravure, Reverse Gravure, and Offset Gravure. Chris has work with all of these methods in a number of different conditions.

Hot Melt Adhesives: This is a class of thermoplastic adhesives that have a blend of good properties at reasonable costs. Chris has been formulating and using hot melts for over 28 years. He organized and chaired the first Pressure Sensitive Hot Melt conference, and has done considerable work in this field.

Label Stock: Pressure sensitive labels have been one of the fastest growing packaging and labeling segments. This technology continues to be refined and developed. Chris has been in the unique position of managing a pressure sensitive coating operation, consulting into this industry, and providing sales support into various label houses. For more information see:
Adhesive Selection
Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
Silicone Coating Material

Solvent Adhesives
Web Handling
Web Tracking

Laminating : Paper, film, and foil laminating is a critical process and is involved in many of the converting processes. If not done properly curl, wrinkles and high waste result. Chris brings to this area more than 30 years of experience and more than 10 years of consulting. He has been involved in projects from solving field problems to helping customers select the best equipment for their operation.

Medical Coatings : There are a number of chemistries that are used to coat films and webs in the manufacture of medical devices and drug delivery systems. Chris has worked with a broad range of coatings such as acrylic transdermal PSA adhesives, high viscosity coatings, and very thin film specialty coatings.

Medical Coating Materials: Much of the coating materials and webs required for medical devices are very similar to traditional coating materials. As a consultant, Chris has worked in solving coating and laminating problems relating to the manufacture of several medical devices. This has included special testing devices and transdermal drug delivery systems.

Medical Products: In recent years there had been an increasing use of traditional coating and laminating methods to produce medical products for drug delivery and medical device construction. Combining the extensive experience Chris has in special coating conditions and methods with the specific client´s product knowledge has provided faster market introductions at lower costs.

Paper Finishing: As VP of Operations for Zimmer Paper Products, as a consultant to several paper mills, and in his capacity of specifying and selling paper and film finishing equipment, Chris has significant experience with the finishing processes including score, crush, and razor blade slitting; the use of driven and undriven lay-on rolls; center winding, surface winding, and center/surface winding.

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive: Chris has been coating and developing Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA's) since 1969. As Project Manager at Riegel he developed some of the first PSA Hot Melts. At Zimmer Paper Products he established their PS program, at Kleenstik-Fasson he over saw the development and manufacture of PSA coated products. He has extensively consulted into this area covering formulations, application technology, process control, marketing.

Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Coating and Laminating : This is the application of an elastomeric self adhesive coating to a moving web and the subsequent lamination to a protective face material.

For more than 25 years Chris has had varying degrees of contact with this industry: 10 years consulting to PSA companies, VP Operations to a major PSA converter, and coating equipment design

Roll Product Incoming Inspection : Chris has worked with the test methods developed by the TAPPI and TLMI organizations. In addition he has simplified some of the methods for quicker response times and has developed unique test methods for silicone cure.

Roll Product Industry Marketing: Roll products covers a very wide range of possible end uses. Chris has provided marketing assistance and marketing reports in the areas of Roll Label Face Stock, Thermal Transfer Label Stock, and general market overviews for the roll label industry.

Roll Coating Process: Roll coating typically refers to variations of smooth roll coating. This would include three roll direct coating for high viscosity coatings, three roll reverse for improved coating smoothness on webs that can handle the increased stress and shear, four roll coating for 100% solventless laminating adhesives, and five roll coating for very low coat weights such as those used in solventless silicone coating. In addition roll coating can refer to gravure (direct and indirect), and offset gravure which are listed separately. Chris has over 27 years experience in roll coating, from very low coat weight applications on delicate webs such as ¼ mil polyester and .00035 Al foil to heavy (15 mils) coatings on vinyl for special industrial applications. In his work as a consultant he has worked on almost every category of application.

Silicone Coating Material: As the primary release agent for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives, silicone coating materials are an essential ingredient to the PS lamination. Chris began working with silicone release agents in 1969 as manager of a release coating group. In 1972 Chris again focused part of his attention to the technology of coating silicones which included their chemistry and cure properties. While at Fasson he was able to do much additional work on silicone chemistry, coating methods, and production difficulties.

Silicone coatings are supplied in three forms; solvent, 100% solids (solventless), and emulsion. Until recently emulsion silicones were used only for non critical applications. Today's latest chemistries have provided release ranges and product consistency that allow emulsion silicones to be used for premium roll label release agents. Chris has worked with and continues to work with emulsion silicones as well as solventless and solvent based

Silicone Contamination: In paper and film coating the silicone coating is cured into a macromolecule. Incomplete cure results in free silicone that can contaminate surfaces that it is in contact with. Chris has been involved in a number of studies on the relative effect of this silicone on various adhesives and the effects on downstream properties such as die cutting. In addition to the direct contamination due to uncured silicone there is also the condition during solventless silicone coating at high speed where the silicone coating forms a mist that can also be a contaminate. Chris has limited experience in controlling silicone misting.

Slot Coating Process: This is the application of coatings and adhesives through the use of a slot die. Slot coating was developed in 1967 by George Park. Chris worked on the first slot coater in 1969 at Riegel Paper Company. Since then he has chaired a number of conferences on high viscosity coating, and consulted on high viscosity coatings. Through his frequent lectures, consulting assignments, and close relationships with all of the equipment manufactures and key adhesive suppliers, Chris remains one of the leaders in the field of high viscosity coating, particularly hot melt coatings.

Solvent Adhesive: In solvent adhesives, Chris' experience has been in the field of pressure sensitive adhesives. In the 1980's he was involved in formulating solvent PSA adhesives. Since then his work has been in the application and testing of solvent PSA adhesives.

Solventless Adhesives: See:
Hot Melt Adhesives

Silicone Coating Material
Film Laminating Process

Transdermal Adhesives: The delivery of medical compounds through the use of special adhesives has grown exponentially as the efficacy and ease of use of skin delivery systems are documented. Chris has had many years experience in the process technology for the manufacture of these products as well as the particular adhesives needed.

Web (material) : See:
Web Coating Process

Web Handling
Web Tracking

Web Coating Process: Chris has spent over 27 years in the web coating process. He has experience in wax coating, hot melt, solvent coating, solventless coating, and emulsion coating on a wide variety of webs from light weight films and foils to SBS boards and heavy films and vinyl's. He has worked with companies in the USA, Canada, England, Scotland, Finland, France, Denmark, and Germany.

Web Conversion: See:
Web Coating Process

Web Handling
Web Tracking

Web Handling: The proper tension control, tracking, and rewinding is critical to producing an acceptable finished web product. Chris has extensive experience in determining proper web handling conditions, trouble shooting web tracking problems (see Web Tracking), and setting the proper taper tension on the rewind for different web materials. He has served as a consultant for companies in reducing waste due to improper web handling conditions.

Web Handling System: In order to provide the maximum control over the web, the equipment used for web handling (unwinds, nip rolls, drag brakes, coating process, oven conditions, laminations, and rewinds) should be considered as a system. As a consultant Chris has helped companies specify and select their equipment and on existing installations he has provided a survey of the system along with recommendations.

Web Processing: See:
Web Coating

Web Handling
Web Tracking

Web Tracking: A number of factors affect web tracking: machine alignment, web condition (baggy edges, wrinkles, etc.), tension control, web slip, surface friction, differential draws, spreader rolls and devices (such as bowed rolls). Chris has worked with all of these factors in his roles as consultant and the several production positions he has held.

Web-fed Machine: As a category this separates web processes from sheet fed processes. See Web Coating, Web Handling, and Web Tracking for more information

Winding: One of the critical aspects of winding is the taper tension profile. Chris has had significant experience in developing optimum winding profiles for difficult to wind materials such as silicone coated papers and films.

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